Wesleyan Wisdom: Dangerous road ahead! Proceed with caution.

Wesleyan Wisdom | Donald Haynes | United Methodist Reporter

I am an old man with far less tolerance for the arguments about social justice issues that might divide the church . . . a church I love and to which I have devoted sixty years of my professional life. Not only am I old and retired, I come from a family heritage that has been steeped in Methodist loyalty since the 1840’s. When I was courted by another Wesleyan denomination in my teen years, my timid, soft spoken little mother asked me if I was considering leaving the Methodist Church. To my teenage grunt, she responded with clarity: “As far back as we know, our people have been Methodists.” Indeed, she had reared me on references to her mother’s riding on horseback behind Alfred Walker as he went to Lowe’s Methodist Episcopal Church, South to build the fires in winter and open the windows in summer. After helping him with his work, she rode back with him and took her place in the family carriage dressed in her “church clothes”. Of course, the church was on a circuit, so the only event every Sunday was Sunday School–all led by laity.  Her pride and joy was that two of her brothers were Methodist circuit riders.

Our home was quite modest and our bookshelf quite slim, but a current copy of the “Discipline” stood beside the Holy Bible, and Hurlburt’s Stories of the Bible. Mama knew major passages of each by heart. The Articles of Religion and the General Rules were taught to me as much as the Twenty-third psalm and the beatitudes! Her admonitions were sprinkled with quotes from John Wesley, and I know not where she had learned them! They took their place in her “discipline” of me alongside the Book of Proverbs and Benjamin Franklin’s, Poor Richard’s Almanac.” In her late eighties when blinded by cataracts, she could entertain her loneliness by quoting long passages of scripture, the General Rules, or John Wesley!

So it is that much of the polemical language coming to my emails these days is deeply troubling. In June I will be teaching a seminary course on Wesley’s sermons, and this morning, I read Sermon #20, titled “The Lord Our Righteousness.”

John Wesley and George Whitefield

John Wesley and George Whitefield

The sermon reflects Wesley’s longstanding debate with the Calvinists about predestination. Indeed, the followers of his dear friend, George Whitefield, had bolted down in Wales and formed a “Methodist Calvinist” movement that thrived long after both Whitefield and Wesley were dead. So Wesley knew the pain of divisiveness–both its rhetoric and his effects.

With that context in mind, take note of the opening paragraph of this sermon, which was first published in 1771:

“How dreadful and how innumerable are the contests which have arisen about religion! And not only among the children of this world, among those who knew not what true religion was; but even among the children of God, those who had experienced ‘the kingdom of God within them’, who had tasted of ‘righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.’ How many of these in all ages, instead of joining together against the common enemy, have turned their weapons against each other, and so not only wasted their precious time but hurt one another’s spirits, weakened each other’s hands, and so hindered the great work of their common Master! How many of the weak have hereby been offended! How many of the ‘lame turn out of the way’! How many sinners confirmed in their disregard of all religion, and their contempt of those that profess it! And how many of the ‘excellent ones upon earth’ have been constrained to ‘weep in secret places.’!”

Wesley then cites Jeremiah 13:17–a verse we need to memorize as we observe and weep in our own time. As Jerusalem was falling to Babylon and his congregation was shrinking, Jeremiah wrote, “If you are too proud to listen, I will go off alone and cry my eyes out. I will weep uncontrollably because the Lord’s flock will be dragged off into exile.”

Wesley continues to ask how we can “remove the contention from the children of God.” He wonders how we can “restore or preserve peace among them.” He laments, “What but a good conscience would anyone think too dear to part with in order to promote this valuable end?” He fears that not one can “make these wars to cease” but challenges everyone to “let each do what he can, let him contribute, if it be but two mites, toward it. Happy are they who are able, in any degree, to promote ‘peace and good-will among men.'”

Today we must do a reality check. The rhetoric is harsh and delegates are being recruited for a historic vote at General Conference in 2016. However, this is nothing new. The language and the potential of rupture is reminiscent of the conflict about “sanctification and holiness” in the late 19th century. The Holiness Association had been formed in Chicago in 1867. In 1870 a Methodist preacher had bought “a tract of rare beauty” on the New Jersey shore for the Ocean Grove Camp Meeting Association of the Methodist Episcopal Church. For the next decades volunteer work and money set about to built a “holiness city.” The advocates of sanctification as “a second work of grace” effecting Wesley’s doctrine of Christian perfection evangelized from New England to the Western frontiers. The North Georgia conference adopted the unique policy of the cabinet’s appointing all the “holiness preachers” to the Gainesville District in an effort to “localize the contagion” in the editorial words of the Georgia Wesleyan Advocate. That same editor used the power of his pen to caricature the Methodists of holiness persuasion: “They preach a different doctrine… sing different songs…circulate a different literature, and have adopted radically different words of worship…” Really! This commentary would be appropriate for more than one group in our present state of diversity!

Atticus Haygood

Atticus Greene Haygood

Two philosophies of separation arose in the build up to the 1894 General Conference–“Come-outism” and “push-outism.” In the southern church, the break came that year. Atticus Greene Haygood, bishop and former editor of MEChurch, South Sunday School literature, lambasted the holiness evangelists as “tramps.” Raillery and accusations filled mailboxes and was screamed from pulpits. John P. Brooks of Illinois urged Methodists of the holiness persuasion to “come out of the compromised denomination as an act of faith.” His book, Banner of Holiness became what historian Timothy Smith calls “the textbook of come-outism.”

The holiness tradition had adopted a counter-cultural “holiness code” of Victorian moralism that was more piousity than true piety. The code forbade dancing, card playing, hand holding for teenagers, alcohol, tobacco, profanity, and Sunday recreation. For women and girls it forbade makeup, jewelry, flesh-colored hose, shoes with toes out, and beauty salon hair styling. When movies came out later, they were forbidden as well. These things were defined as “worldliness” and they insisted if Jesus came back and found us doing any of the taboo things, we would be left behind. The “comer-outers” pressed a hard bargain for acceptance.

Meanwhile there was a party of “push-outers” who were saying, “Good riddance; let them go.” As delegates prepared for the 1894 General Conference in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, they received a letter from Bishop Haygood:

“There has sprung up among us a party with holiness as a watchword…The effect is to disparage the new birth, and all stages of spiritual growth from the blade to the full corn in the ear…we do not question the sincerity or zeal of these brethren; …but we deplore their teaching and methods….”

When the General Conference heard in the Episcopal Address a virtual invitation for the “holiness brethren” to leave; the conference adopted a resolution that made that invitation official position of the ME Church, South. Likewise, a similar theological stance existed in The Methodist Episcopal Church. Ironically, one of the holiness practices that the mainstream opposed was the use of women as evangelists in the holiness camp meetings and local church revivals. The results were numerically and spiritually devastating.


Phineas F. Bresee, founder of The Church of the Nazarene

The Nazarene Church of America was founded in 1895 when Phineas Bresee, a native of New York, who entered the Methodist ministry in Iowa and served some of its larger churches before transferring to southern California. In Los Angeles he became pastor of what is now First UMC of that city, then moved to Pasadena before being appointed as a district superintendent. He was a delegate to General Conference in 1872 from Iowa and again in 1892 from California and was a trustee at the University of Southern California. In short, Bresee’s credentials were impeccable until he became convinced that Wesley preached two works of grace–justification and sanctification. He then founded the Peniel Mission, an independent ministry to the homeless of Los Angeles. He was subsequently removed from his appointment as a district superintendent. In spite of his distinguished career, he felt he was almost a man without a church. Following the church’s position on sanctification in 1894 and the refusal of the conference to appoint him to Peniel Mission, Bresee and a leading Los Angeles physician, founded the “Church of the Nazarene.” Its mission was to reach for Christ “the toiling masses of common people for whom Jesus lived and died.”

The last seven years of the 19th century, following the 1894 General Conference fracture, saw twenty-three holiness or pentecostal denominations come on-line. Methodism, north and south, lost about 100,000 members, but continued to grow, mostly through biological growth and the Sunday School. As for the holiness controversy, a strange silence shrouded the subject. Methodist leaders north and south muted their voices and shrouded their memories of the holiness controversy and Methodism’s only split over doctrine. Most of our history books have nothing or little to describe the acrimony of that era. Mainstream Methodism turned its attention to merger of the two episcopal branches and the Methodist Protestant Church, a process that absorbed much energy until it was celebrated in 1939.

We have been blessed by the willingness of various “losers” and “winners” to adopt our Wesleyan “catholic spirit” in debates and actions about mergers, polity, social principles, ordination of women, abolishment of the Central Jurisdiction and other issues. Many of these have brought secular cultural or political debates into the Church. Some have addressed institutional organization and strategy. Few have been biblical, per se. Currently we are caught up in what could be a “perfect storm” prelude to action that only small minorities want but might evolve into a “come outer” or “push outer” posture.

This is the time for sobering leadership voices to speak up. If in 2016 we cannot tap our “catholic spirit” heritage, General Conference could deteriorate into a shouting match and become a replay of 1844 or 1894.

Donald W. Haynes, UMR Columnist

Donald Haynes

Dr. Donald Haynes has been an ordained elder in the United Methodist Church for more than 50 years and is a member of the Western North Carolina Annual Conference. A recipient of the Harry Denman Evangelism Award, Dr. Haynes is the author of On the Threshold of Grace—Methodist Fundamentals; serves as an adjunct faculty member at Hood Theological Seminary; and is the Assistant to the Pastor in Evangelism at the First United Methodist Church of Asheboro, North Carolina. Dr. Haynes has written for The United Methodist Reporter since 2005.


  1. Thomas Coates says:

    The irony here is that while Bresee was a progressive in his day, the Church of the Nazarene is to the right of the UMC in ours. There is no progressive Wesleyan/Methodist denomination in the USA… neither with our (UMC) polity, nor beliefs.

  2. Where is the heart in all of this? Where would I be today if 22 years ago two dear men had not come forward to help me with my two sons when their father died? My own father and brother did not support me in the way these two friends did. Both sons are grown now, very successful with their careers and families. I have 2 graduate degrees. My two friends have gone on to glory, not from disease caused by their lifestyle but regular cardio problems like the rest of us. Let us look at the heart and see God’s love.

  3. Thank you Dr. Haynes for that focused perspective on the self-destructive path of division we seem to be walking.
    The whole thing seems ironic and surreal to me, a former Baptist, who left the SBC because of the vitriolic strife – in favor of the gentler, more thoughtful Methodist camp.
    Incidentally, I’m glad it was your hand which first greeted me the day I was received into our conference. Lead-on!

  4. Early Pentecostals also found themselves responding to both the putting out and and the leaving aspects in the 1906-1910 years. The chief difference in all of these seems, to me, to be the long years of inability to come to consensus, to find the holy compromise, or the truly ‘united’ aspect of the UMC. Two segments with totally difference interpretation os scripture, value of same scripture, and different concepts of faithful living stand glaring across a chasm. For some 40 years two different theologies have emerged in opposition to any that Wesley would have recognized. The UMC appears to be at a place where two paths diverge. One path is filled with social justice defined Gospel and an accomodation to accepted social mores. The other path is marked by centuries of traditional faith and a view that as Christians we hold to other values, often outside the realm of normative social conventions. We are to love, work, and help others to come to know a God who loves them and be forever changed by that encounter. In a real way, we have become shallow where we should have been deep and accepting where we should have been disciplining. We did not, in this century, go out like the Book of Acts and ‘turn the world upside down.’ Instead we found the world had turned us upside down. Can we, as a whole, right ourselves? Can we find our ‘true north’ of faith and grace once more in aligning ourselves with orthodoxy and Godly love? Challenging times; we must all pray God’s will be done. Sometimes, science tells us, the healthy thing is for a cell to divide so that it may multiply and grow beyond its previous size and limitations. Perhaps, that is what confronts us now? Can we divide to multiply and expand?

  5. I am a retired elder in the Kentucky Conference serving a small congregation as a “part time” pastor. I’ve watched this debate within United Methodism grow in intensity since 1982 when I began my ministry. The issues in the above article was theological differences between two opposing groups who respected God’s word and were seeking the truth. Both of the groups would be appalled at what is being proposed now.
    What is being contested by many is blatent outright unrepentitant sin by those who have no regard or respect for God’s Word or the discipline of the church. I saw this demonstrated in the General Conference of 1992 when the pro LBGT group didn’t get to speak they stomped their feet like little children throwing a temper tantrum until the meeting could not continue.
    Later they rushed the past the bar of the conference and spread a blasphemous banner in front of the presiding bishop which read “The Stones Will Cry Out”. This famous quote was in reference to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, not a group of people promoting sexual sins.
    Now that they have the support of the current administration, the courts, the media, they are going to try and force their will on the whole nation and God forbid, His Church. This is a far cry from the issues being debated in the above article.
    I don’t think you will find any support for those seeking to divide our church because of their support for immoral behavior in the writings of God’s Word, John Wesley, or the Holiness or Progressive movements of an earlier period. While I know the pain of separation is the topic of discussion, the circumstances are vastly different.
    I can see no way that the two sides involved can reconcile their differences without those advocating sin repent and allow God to change them. For the other side changing would be tantamount to apostasy and denying what they know in their hearts to be God’s will clearly expressed in His Word.
    And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather expose them. For it is shameful even to speak of those things which are done by them in secret. (Eph 5:11-12 NKJV)

    • Lanny, you speak truth.

      God bless Dr. Haynes for his love of the UMC, but in his nostalgia for a church quite different from the one that exists today, his article contains errors of logic…in essence he is comparing apples to oranges. It is the same reasoning people use when erroneously comparing a characteristic defined mainly by behavior, such as sexuality, to race.

      Our goal should always be a balanced, objective assessment of truth. I cannot think of another issue in contemporary society where that goal has been cast aside more frequently. Political/judicial/legislative/ecclesiastical might does not make right. Legality does not define morality.

    • Rev. Garner,
      Thank you for articulating so well what I was thinking as I read the article. The issues of conflict then and today have no relation whatsoever. And, any attempt to draw a parallel between the two is wrong and deceptive. But, deception has driven this conflict from the beginning, and, unfortunately many within the UMC have been duped by the deception. By using love of neighbor, and taking full and complete advantage as recipients of that, and Scriptural manipulative tactics, the progressives have managed to drive a wedge of doubt as to the accuracy of Scripture in the minds of too many Methodists. In doing so, they have skillfully caused the Biblical definition of marriage and sexual immorality to be questioned. Debating theology and doctrine is one thing, editing the Bible so as to endorse sexual immorality, including, of course the practice of homosexuality, and redefining God’s created order of marriage is an entirely different thing. Any attempt to parallel General Conference 1894 with General Conference 2016 is just another example of being had by the progressive deception.

  6. There need not be any “shouting match.” One side has decided it will not try to change the Book of Discipline but will simply disobey it. The other side is willing for them to do so, but understands this as a division that already exists (as this side believes the Discipline is our covenant, something that can be changed, but must be obeyed). No shouting. Just amicable separation into the group that affirms the Discipline and the group that does not.

  7. To all my UMC friends if I may be so arrogant as to give some advice:

    It is rumored that a movement is afoot in your Church disguised as a defense and affirmation of Christian “orthodoxy” and Wesleyan principles to facilitate and where necessary to force a departure of individuals or associations of individuals and or congregations from the United Methodist Church. This departure would, according to those so inclined, create a truly “Biblical Methodism” free from any taint of “modern and or revisionist socialist theology”!

    My advice is let them go in peace and let them keep all their money and property including what they have paid into the pension funds. If you do not you are saying to an already justifiably skeptical world that when it comes down to it, the “bottom line” is what matters to your church rather than faithfulness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Episcopal Church,under the direction of its CEO and PB, which is truly the most misguided leadership it has had in a century or more, has now spent over 44 MILLION dollars trying to keep what has never been their national church’s treasure in the first place, and in the process making it quite clear to the same skeptical world that it is not fidelity or witness that is important but the monies and investments that determines how “Christians love one another”!

    Consider for a moment if you were asked to decide what mattered most to a church, money or principle, and you were given two examples which would strongly indicate if not prove what was of the greatest importance and those examples were: Church Number 1 and those who followed it lost all their pension funds, buildings, resources, properties and investments for the sake of their convictions or Chruch Number 2 that spent millions and millions of dollars in never ending law suits to deny what others had purchased with their own money and sacrifices, refused to even allow those who chose to leave to buy back these proprieties which they had held in the first place and just to punish those who had left its fellowship sold many of these properties to other religions that had nothing in common with any church! So yes let them depart in peace and leave their future like your own in the Hands of God!

  8. Seems to be Ezekial 15 time for the UMC. Examing those denominations grown from the schism of 1894 (transplants) many have come to Christ through them (produced fruit). For example the AG is diverse and spreading through preaching the gospel. Whatever happens through this God’s will triumphs and Christ’s sacrifice still offers to save people from sin that enslaves them. Praise God.

  9. I’ve read and reread Dr. Haynes’ commentary–and the comments as well.

    Change/split/schism? Same/quarrel/vitriol? Biblical/Conservative–Liberal/Progressive? Father/Son/Holy Spirit same yesterday–today–tomorrow? The Bible a live and progressive testament that changes as times/morals dictate? House divided against itself? Can it stand?

    The Triune Father weeps. John Wesley “stares” at an unrecognizable ship that has no sail/rudder/paddle–that is taking on water at an ever increasing rate–sinking–sinking–sinking.


  10. Is it possible to imagine a faith community that is committed to following the person of Jesus of Nazareth, rather than promoting specific ideological positions?

    Almost all of these comments are defending or attacking the position of one side or the other. Those who reject persons of a different sexual orientation are caught up in a self-righteousness that is almost beyond belief. And all of that is based on seven lonely verses in the entire Bible, which serious Bible scholars have shown clearly to be dealing with questions of idolatry and promiscuity. But my question to all of those is: why do you never mention the more-than-100 verses in the Bible that CONDEMN gluttony (not just mention it)? Have you ever heard a sermon preached against gluttony? When you observe that something like 70% of the people of the US are obese, and facing serious health problems as a consequence, it would seem that this might be an important topic for consideration. But no. A raft of very fat preachers, like Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson, focus on another topic and ignore one that has serious consequences for our entire population. Should we start excluding gluttons from our church? Should we start weighing people and checking their body-fat ratios before letting them into membership in the church?

    The Christian Faith, if it follows in the footsteps of Jesus, is about inclusion, not exclusion. Light up, everybody. Learn to love one another.

    • begging your pardon, Rev. Morris: the VAST majority of the strident comments come from liberal/progressives. it makes no difference–conservatives are screamed at for a prolife stance, for an inerrancy in Scripture stance, for a celibate stance, for not embracing a political correctness stance, for basically an ANYTHING stance that does not fit a liberal/progressive’s
      view of the church/country/world…………………

    • No one is condemning a person—or “denying personhood” as some misinformed individuals characterize it—because their sexual behavior is prohibited by Scripture. That is a common ruse and only true if one considers sexuality the primary determinant of personhood (which is the de facto position of many agitating for this cause).

    • Inclusion? Why didn’t you mention the verses in the Bible where Jesus SAID over and over of those who would not inherit the Kingdom of Heaven because of unrepentant sin? Of those who would be tossed into the fire? Of the gnashing of teeth?

  11. Elaine T. says:

    I was recently talking with a Wesleyan pastor questioning him about their break from the Methodists. In the 1830’s a group of pastors who were against slavery were put out by the slave owning pastors of a southern Methodist conference and thus the Wesleyan Methodist Church was born. Around 50 years ago they dropped the Methodist name. I didn’t ask why but it is not hard for me to figure why. There is no consistency in the UMC! You could be a proud member of a UMC church and if you have to move you will naturally look for a UMC church. The problem is you can walk into another UMC church and feel like you are in a foreign land and it has nothing to do with worship style, just teaching!

    • In the past 25 years, The Wesleyan Church has mushroomed in my area. And, they’re planning to plant a number of additional churches in the near future. Their rapid growth is from a younger generation. It looks as if they’re getting the younger folks who like the Wesleyan tradition of evangelism while the mean age of the congregations of the area Methodist churches continues to rise. If the split of the UMC comes, it would seem that the orthodox Methodists and the Wesleyans would want to take a serious look at getting back together. Or, if the UMC fails to address this schism, orthodox Methodists could very well find that walking into a Wesleyan Church to be much easier than trying to find another Methodist church.

      • The Wesleyan Church is very sparsely represented in this Conference. Where is that denomination really active?

        • James,
          These Wesleyan Churches that I referenced are in Metro Atlanta, which is in the UMC North Georgia Conference. I know that numbers can be tricky things, but below is a statement from the Wesleyan Church regarding some of their numbers. Something significant seems to be going on with them. They seem to be attracting folks to their worship services, who are of the younger generation. I know that a huge problem with the Methodist Church is the wide gap between membership and attendance. At my UMC, we’re fortunate to have 30% of the membership in attendance at all services on Sunday. My suspicion, which is probably nothing new, is that the actual, sustained showing up membership of the entire UMC in North America is probably less than half the membership numbers reported. Bottom line, should the UMC go away, I believe that Wesleyan theology and doctrine, which started as evangelical and holiness, will not go away with it. And, looking at the Wesleyan Church of today, it shines a light on the problems of the UMC and the troubles that we are experiencing.


          • Thanks, Wad, for your response and the website. I’ve visited it this morning. There is much good information. I intend to copy and paste–with the permission of the Wesleyan Church, the initial article that is there and share it with some folks in my address book……………………

  12. Don’t forget the heresy charge brought against Professor and Reberend Bodern Parker Bowne, about 1905, on grounds that Bowne, a Methodist philosopher and dean of Graduate Studies Boston University, o heresy trial grounded in Bowne’s attempt to find coexectescse between empirical science an biblical faith, Bowne a unanimous verdict. Bowne shocked by raising a biology text and saying,”This is science; saying “the is science”. Then he held up the Bible and said.”This is is not.”
    Bowne refused to accept the the bible is inerrant,and should he taken litterally.

  13. The position of The Wesleyan Church on the practice of homosexuality and the definition of marriage:


  14. Michael says:

    More concerns of institutional preservation rather than following a movement.
    When the size of our book of doctrines rivals the size of the bible, perhaps something has gone amiss.

  15. Gary Bebop says:

    Dr. Haynes tells a good whopper, but the narrative fails as analysis of the current United Methodist Church. Nostalgia will not spare the church its ills. Most of us have attics or closets full of memories, mixed at best, years we cherish or have reconciled ourselves to, but we would never choose to repeat. Those boxes of clutter that Dr. Haynes lovingly pours over will not save our families, our friends, our communities, or ourselves. Clean out the house and be renewed.

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